Researchers have sequenced the mitochondrial genome of a 400,000-year-old hominin from Sima de los Huesos, the “bone pit”, in a cave site in Northern Spain that has yielded the world’s largest assembly of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils.
Using novel techniques to extract…
Company planning mission to Mars with 200,000 willing volunteers unveils plan for satellite and lander it intends to launch in just four years.
The Dutch non-profit company that has gathered 200,000 volunteers for its planned manned mission to Mars has unveiled details about the first stage of its mission.
This is probably the coolest GIF I’ve ever seen.
now there’s some perspective.
I once saw a storm roll like this once. It was beautiful.
This is both terrifying and beautiful. Nature is wondrous to behold.
At the beginning of dawn the southern Milky Way is photographed over the Cerro Paranal Observatory in the barren Atacama Desert.
Bright stars Alpha and Beta Centauri are near the horizon and the Southern Cross (Crux) appear above them. Higher in the sky is the large red emission Carina Nebula.
The Large Magellanic Clouds is on the right. With its dark, steady, and transparent sky, Paranal is home to some of the world’s leading telescopes.
Operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) the Very Large Telescope (VLT) is located on Paranal, composed of four 8-meter telescopes and smaller auxiliary telescopes, each 1.8 m in aperture (appear in this image), which are important elements of the VLT interferometer. - Babak Tafreshi
How do bubble chambers detect particles?
A bubble chamber often contains liquid hydrogen. Charged particles entering the chamber would interact with the electrons transferring some of their energy via the Coulomb force. This initiated boiling and thus led to bubbles being formed. The electrons of the hydrogen atoms thus acted as the detectors within the chamber. Only charged particles cause tracks in bubble chambers, as neutral particles will not interact via the Coulomb force.
However, we do not just want to see a beam of particles passing through a chamber. We want to see what happens when nuclear particles interact with each other. The beams of particles interact with the protons of the liquid hydrogen in the bubble chamber and so the bubble chamber contains both the detector particles and the target particles.
How are the particles moving?
The beams of particles are parallel to begin with. Some may then undergo collisions and the path will change. So you need to look for beams that do not go directly from one side of the picture to another.
What charge is the original beam?
If we are not told what the original beam is we may sometimes be able to tell what its charge is from just looking at the picture.
A visible beam has to be made up of charged particles. These will be bent within a magnetic field and so the direction of curvature will tell you the charge of the particle. Often a beam will collide with an electron, knocking it on with more energy than usual. This then leaves a track of its own within the detector that is quite distinctive.
There are often a few examples of this appearing on a picture and this shows the way that the negative charges are bent in the magnetic field. You can then compare this with the direction of curvature of the particle beam to determine the charge of those particles. Using Fleming’s left hand rule you can also deduce the direction of the magnetic field in or out of the picture.
Knowing the direction of the magnetic field you can then find the charges of all particles.
Astronomers have spotted what appear to be two supermassive black holes at the heart of a remote galaxy, circling each other like dance partners. The incredibly rare sighting was made with the help of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE.
Follow-up observations with the…